References for Benefits of Natural Marine Extract™ Marine Species

Natural Marine Extract is composed of all-natural marine species including Holothuria cinerascens (ashy sea cucumber), Spirulina pacifica (Hawaiian spirulina), Chalmys rubida (Pacific pink scallop), Strongylocentrotus franciscanus (giant red urchin), Holothuria mexicana (donkey dung sea cucumber), Haliotis fulgens (green abalone), Arthrospira platensis (spirulina), Stichopus chloronotus (greenfish sea cucumber), Stronylocentrotus purpuratus (purple urchin), Haliotus rufescens (red abalone), Holothuria scabra (sandfish, a sea cucumber), Ascophyllium nodosum (knotted wrack kelp),Macrocystis integrifolia (giant kelp), Microcystis aeruginosa (blue green algae)

On overall mechanism of action:
Marine-derived biological macromolecule-based biomaterials for wound healing and skin tissue regeneration
"Wound healing is a complex biological process that depends on the wound condition, the patient's health, and the physicochemical support given through external materials. The development of bioactive molecules and engineered tissue substitutes to provide physiochemical support to enhance the wound healing process plays a key role in advancing wound-care management. Thus, identification of ideal molecules in wound treatment is still in progress. The discovery of natural products that contain ideal molecules for skin tissue regeneration has been greatly advanced by exploration of the marine bioenvironment. Consequently, tremendously diverse marine organisms have become a great source of numerous biological macromolecules that can be used to develop tissue-engineered substitutes with wound healing properties. This review summarizes the wound healing process, the properties of macromolecules from marine organisms and the involvement of these molecules in skin tissue regeneration applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V."

Sea Cucumber

Holothuria cinerascens (ashy sea cucumber),  Holothuria mexicana (donkey dung sea cucumber),  Holothuria scabra (sandfish, a sea cucumber), Stichopus chloronotus (greenfish sea cucumber)


Types of collagen with high moisture retention and absorption, as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerebrosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids.

Noted health benefits:

wound healing, immunomodulatory Several unique biological and pharmacological activities namely anti-angiogenic [24], anticancer [25], anticoagulant [26,27], anti-hypertension [28], anti-inflammatory [29–31], antimicrobial [32,33], antioxidant [34], antithrombotic [35,36], antitumor [37,38]. Relief of joint pain, tendonitis, and sprains, against hypertension, asthma, rheumatism, cuts and burns, impotence and constipation [18–23]



Li, Po-Hsien, et al. "Extraction and Characterization of Collagen From Sea Cucumber (holothuria Cinerascens) and Its Potential Application In Moisturizing Cosmetics." Aquaculture, v. 515, doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.734590

Sohair R Fahmy* Department of Zoology, Egypt, Published: January 16, 2019

Bordbar S, Anwar F, Saari N. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review. Mar Drugs. 2011;9(10):1761-1805. doi:10.3390/md9101761

Salarzadeh A, Afkhami M, Bastami K, Ehsanpour M, Khazaali A, and Mokhleci A, Proximate Composition of Two Sea Cucumber Species Holothuria pavra and Holothuria arenicola in Persian Gulf. Annals of Biological Research, 2012, 3 (3):1305-1311 (

Attoub S, Arafat K, Gélaude A, et al. Frondoside a suppressive effects on lung cancer survival, tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e53087. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053087

Aminin DL, Agafonova IG, Kalinin VI, et al. Immunomodulatory properties of frondoside A, a major triterpene glycoside from the North Atlantic commercially harvested sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa. J Med Food. 2008;11(3):443-453. doi:10.1089/jmf.2007.0530

Jin JO, Shastina VV, Shin SW, et al. Differential effects of triterpene glycosides, frondoside A and cucumarioside A2-2 isolated from sea cucumbers on caspase activation and apoptosis of human leukemia cells. FEBS Lett. 2009;583(4):697-702. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2009.01.010

Li YX, Himaya SW, Kim SK. Triterpenoids of marine origin as anti-cancer agents. Molecules. 2013;18(7):7886-7909. Published 2013 Jul 4. doi:10.3390/molecules18077886


Edible Algae

Spirulina pacifica (Hawaiian spirulina), Arthrospira platensis (spirulina),

Compounds: antioxidants beta carotene, zeaxanthin, echinenone, myxoxanthophyll and beta cryptoxanthin; enzymes, vitamins, and minerals, iron, essential and non-essential amino acids. gamma linolenic acid

Noted Health Benefits:

Strengthens the immune system, supports cardiovascular health, and boosts energy levels; anti-cancer, anti-aging, lowers cholesterol, 60% protein and is an excellent source of vitamins A, K1, K2, B12, and iron.


Miranda M, Cintra, Barros and Mancini-Filho J Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima Braz J Med Biol Res, August 1998, Volume 31(8) 1075-1079 doi:10.1590/S0100-879X1998000800007

Shih CK, Chang JH, Yang SH, Chou TW, Cheng HH. beta-Carotene and canthaxanthin alter the pro-oxidation and antioxidation balance in rats fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet. Br J Nutr. 2008;99(1):59-66. doi:10.1017/S0007114507781497

Harris NM, Crook TJ, Dyer JP, et al. Intravesical meglumine gamma-linolenic acid in superficial bladder cancer: an efficacy study. Eur Urol. 2002;42(1):39-42. doi:10.1016/s0302-2838(02)00208-7

Pink Scallop

Chlamys rubida (Pacific pink scallop)

Noted Health Benefits:

Regulates collagen metabolism in skin fibroblasts


Liu, Y.C., Torita, A. & Hasegawa, Y. Scallop shell extract promotes recovery from UV-B-induced damage in rat skin epidermal layer. Fish Sci 72, 388–392 (2006). doi:10.1111/j.1444-2906.2006.01161.x

Torita, A, Liu, Y.C & Hasegawa, Y. Photoprotective activity of scallop shell water‐extract in keratinocyte cells, Fish Sci 70, 910-915 (2004) doi:10.1111/j.1444-2906.2004.00886.x

Liu, Y.C., Uchiyama K, Natsui N & Hasegawa, Y. In vitro activities of the components from scallop shells. Fish Sci 68, 1330-1336. doi:10.1046/j.1444-2906.2002.00572.x


Haliotis fulgens (green abalone), Haliotus rufescens (red abalone)

Noted Health Benefits:

anti-oxidant, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer


Lin S-K. Marine Nutraceuticals: Prospects and Perspectives. By Se-Kwon Kim, CRC Press, 2013; 464 Pages, ISBN 978-1-4665-1351-8. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(4):1300-1303.

Lee CG, Kwon HK, Ryu JH, et al. Abalone visceral extract inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by modulating Cox-2 levels and CD8+ T cell activity. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010;10:60. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-10-60

Suleria HA, Masci PP, Gobe GC, Osborne SA. Therapeutic potential of abalone and status of bioactive molecules: A comprehensive review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017;57(8):1742-1748. doi:10.1080/10408398.2015.1031726

Thaweekitphathanaphakdee S, Chanvorachote P, Prateepchinda S, Khongkow M, Sucontphunt A. Abalone Collagen Extracts Potentiate Stem Cell Properties of Human Epidermal Keratinocytes. Mar Drugs. 2019;17(7):424. Published 2019 Jul 20. doi:10.3390/md17070424

Sea Urchins

Strongylocentrotus franciscanus (giant red sea urchin), Stronylocentrotus purpuratus (purple urchin)


Sulfated glycans

Noted Health Benefits:

Anticoagulant and antithrombotic


Vasconcelos AA, Sucupira ID, Guedes AL, et al. Anticoagulant and Antithrombotic Properties of Three Structurally Correlated Sea Urchin Sulfated Glycans and Their Low-Molecular-Weight Derivatives. Mar Drugs. 2018;16(9):304. Published 2018 Aug 30. doi:10.3390/md16090304

Blue Green Algae

Microcystis aeruginosa

Noted Health Benefits:

Anti-oxidant, anti- cancer



Haq SH, Al-Ruwaished G, Al-Mutlaq MA, et al. Antioxidant, Anticancer Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Green Algae, Chaetomorpha Collected from the Arabian Gulf. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):18906. Published 2019 Dec 11. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-55309-1